Periodic system of chemical compounds and metabolism

Изменено: 31.03.2015 Posted on

Yrii Sednev (2003)

In the modern science, physics and inorganic chemistry are based on electron theory and degrees of oxidation according to the Periodic system of elements. However, organic chemistry and biology are based on the structural theory of carbon bonds (Cn), without the system. Here we show that Mendeleyev’s Periodic system of elements and ‘characteristic compounds of groups’ are only the beginning and a small part of the Periodic system of compounds including Cn— system of all organic compounds and metabolism. It determines a programme of development of new chemistry and electronic theory as well as linking natural sciences by eliminating the gap from physics to organic chemistry and biology.

 Originally science was indivisible, based on general ‘elements’. In the 18th century Lavoisier replaced these ancient elements and phlogiston (as a general ‘combustible’ element of metals, charcoal and organic substances) for modern “chemical elements” and theory of oxidation. The latter describes all compounds as combinations of oxygen with ‘simple and compound radicals’. ‘Radical’ (French) meant ‘base’ or ‘root’, ‘simple radicals’ (indivisible) meant ‘chemical elements’ and ‘compound radicals’ meant ‘organic units’. J.Dumas established their first groups, where the methyl alcohol (CH3OH) was related to the alcohol (C2H5OH) in the same way that Sodium was related to Potassium in inorganic chemistry1(as in T.2-3). This relation made it possible to determine unknown members of the same group, called homologues (following the patterns of biological system of Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire). Gerghardt2established their ‘functions’ or ‘types’, ‘genes’ (Om) and ‘families’ (Cn), the correct homologous difference (CH2)n, and hundreds of homologues. For example, he predicted the next (propylic) alcohol with Tb=98oandr=0.7 (real 97.2 and 0.8). He arranged ‘the compound radicals’ according to their degrees of oxidation; and his follower Mendeleyev arranged in groups the ‘simple radicals’, that is ‘chemical elements’, and predicted unknown elements with their temperatures, density and other properties.3

Mendeleyev put ‘characteristic’ highest oxides of ‘radicals’ R2Oxunder the groups linking the valence and homology to the oxidation degree3. The latter became the base of the subsequent electronic theory which has replaced his change in the atomic weight without exact ‘homologous difference’3for the exact electronic one, with the octets of electrons in lines of both periods and of homologues.4So both bases of modern science, the Periodic system and the structural theory, were mainly created by Mendeleyev and Kekule, followers of Gerghardt, in the transition from a common system of ‘simple and compound radicals’ to the concept of ‘chemical elements’ or ‘atoms’ and their chemical bonds.

Kekule’s idea of constant valence (number of bonds, 1858) proved to be unsuccessful in general chemistry, but it is currently used in organic chemistry, partly due to the coincidence in module of the lowest and the highest degrees of oxidation of carbon (-4 and +4), in this way preventing the consideration of all of them (see tables). The attempts to arrange organic compounds according to degrees of oxidation5-7couldn’t acquire proper development and recognition without including all the compounds and linking them with the periodic system of elements and, consequently, with the entire field of inorganic chemistry and physics. Here we show how this can be done.In the groups (families or columns) established by Mendeleyev,‘element R forms hydrogen compound RHn, the hydrate of its highest oxide will be RHnO4; therefore, the highest oxide contains 2RHnO4-nH2O=R2O8-n3. But we can include all this and other intermediate oxidation degrees (for example, RHnO0-4:RHn— RHnO- RHnO2— RHnO3— RHnO4) in the general form. Thus, the simplest periodic system of compounds can be developed by placing compounds under each corresponding group of elements in accordance with their oxidation number (from lowest to highest, or vice versa)*

Table 1 The connection of Periodic system of elements and compounds

The lack of electrons in 1-3 groups for octet can determine their generalization in different forms of bonds (metal, Bnand even Cnin Table 2-3, possibly).There is a symmetry in the forms of compounds from R to RO4for group VIII and Mendeleyev’s ‘characteristic compounds of the groups’ with the highest valence, which form the beginning of the periodic system of compounds. We can then to use this symmetry to turn table 1. All the oxidation degrees of group VIII (from 0 to +8) will be arranged in a row over the rows of groups VII, VI, V and IV, so all possible oxidation degrees of elements will be arranged in increasing order (from –1 to +7; from -2 to +6, from -3 to +5, from -4 to +4 respectively; in general, from x-8 to x, wherexis the group number) or vice versa (T.2).The establishment of a connection between these groups of compounds and those of elements of Mendeleyev’s periodic system (with all its physical bases and quantum mechanics)requires distinguishing the 0 group (because the compounds may include elements in the most important degree of oxidation 0 as well) — modification of the used 8-group scheme in accordance with 9 groups of Mendeleyev’s system (he considered it an error to place the 0 group in the 8 group).*

Table 2. Periodic system of chemical elements and compounds

Modern science and quantum theory in the twentieth century do not explain such form 8 or 9 groups (for d-elements too) of PS and the ‘completing’ of s2p6shells, which defined most of compound and all chemistry (So IUPAC abolished this form of PS and recommended the long form only. So students will not know that C, N and P, S, halogens are in 4-7 groups connected with forms of their oxides, hidrides and other compounds. The thing is that short PS is more system for compounds than for elements). We can propose the hypothesis that this short form is connected with the solution of Schredinger’s equation in space R3. R3defines not only p-orbitals (x, y, z) but all following too.It can be seen in the known spliting of t-e d-electrons in 6 three-dimensional (xy, xz, yz) and 4 others (x2-y2, z2— combination of z2-x2, z2-y2) — from 6 all possible orbitales, in decreasing of valence, temperature of mailing/boiling and other in transition from 6-8 to 9-12 groups of d- and f-elements, orientation of s-orbitals in R3in contradiction with the theory, explained by ‘hibridization’  General geometric R3— nature difines generality of quantum numbers of the solution of Schredinger’s equation in space R3(2, 8…). The prevalence of chemical elements on Earth, which is most important for chemistry and practice, demonstrates simple p6- periodic low may be explained by the repulsion of protons in R3:elements at the end of p6-periods or following even (2+6n or 4+6n at sharp decrease) are most widespread. This simple low is more important than the low of ‘magic numbers’ as well as 8-9 groups of PS more important than d10-f14solution of Schredinger’s equation for compounds with bonds in R3. It explains the maximum of26Fe56(not ‘magic’ 28) and end of natural element in92U. Differences between p6-nuclei and s2p6— 8 group-periodicity and tetrahedral molecules may be explained by the coupling (e-pairs).  But all this is theory only, so it is necessary to base more on the empirical system of Mendeleev. As there are no compounds with oxidation number of element higher than 8, all possible compounds as well as their reactions and transitions will occupy their positions in different assigned groups of the given system. So we can predict analogous reactions. For example, the main rows of carbon (–4+4), nitrogen (–3+5), sulfur (–2+6), etc. appear to be the basis for the circulation of these elements in nature. It determines the transition from inorganic nature to organisms from methane-, nitrogen- and sulfur- bacteria to a human, and different functions, such as NO, which is created from -N+5O3as well as from -N-3H2and connected in inflammation with ‘active forms of oxigen’, O-1, S-1and ClO. The latter and NaIO4in chilean saltpetre8can indicate the existence of the galogen cycle X-1+7as well as the corresponding new class of microorganisms.Every cell and degree of oxidation includes different combinations of the element with all elements of other groups (and combinations of combinations determined next quantum changes and dimensions). But they change at transition from more electronegative elements to the one and to more electropositive elements.The above mentioned principles are better illustrated by the systematization of the greatest number of carbon compounds, i.e. organic chemistry. It appears that general principles of group subdivision can also be applied within each group and subsystem, determining at the same time some other principles of systematization, the most important being systematization according to Rn chain length.The recurrence of the group sequence within each group creates ‘secondary periodicity’ and transition to compounds R2and C2-n, which is a natural systematization principle of organic compounds (found earlier empirically)1, 2. Thus, if combinations of an element, for example, carbon, with other elements are placed in groups as in the line CH3X — CH3OH — CH3NH2— CH3CH3, upon reaching the group of the given element, a radical change in the oxidation degree occurs (from -2 to -3), which starts a new row of compounds:R2, etc.It forms a new system dimension including rows of homologues starting with C2H6. So organic chemistry unexpectedly joins with inorganic chemistry, physics and biochemistry, its borders and its initial.Millions of existing compounds require the principles of further subdivision as well as the reflection of individual elements and their groups. An important subdivision inside the cells (a difference which causes difficulties in understanding common features), is the addition or removal of RHn(such as water). This also connects, for example, oxides to their acids with different degrees of hydration (CO2— H2CO3— C(OH)4). In organic chemistry it corresponds to even more diverse compounds, for example, C2H2— CH3CHO- CH2OHCH2OH (in biochemistry the addition of water, for example, to CO2, aldehydes and unsaturated acids is done by special enzymes). Below we present the beginning of a table of all organic compounds and changes – metabolic pathways (up to C10and without 2n cells of metallorganic and more oxidised geterocyclic compounds).*

Table 3. Periodic system of organic compounds and metabolism (digest)

Obviously, the system has minimal path lengths and complexity with the maximum number of links and compound transitions, similar in their energy and other characteristics. New proteomics and ‘metabonomics’ require the system of all possible compounds and reactions too (not only ‘central metabolic pathways’). Every transition and reaction in the system may be linked with corresponding enzymes, genes, regulation, their disturbance and treatment. It can be a basis for systematization of all related (chemical, biological, medical, technical, economic) information and datebases.1. Dumas,J.,Peligot,E. Veber den Holzgeist,Ann.d.,Ch.,v.15,1 (1835).2.Gerhardt,Ch.Precis de Chimie organique (1844).3. Mendeleev, D.I. Periodic Law (Moscow, 1955).4. Lewis, G.N., J.Am.Chem.Soc., 38, 762-769 (1916)5. Rabinowitz, E.I. Photosinthesis and Related Processes. V.1 (New York, 1945).6.Zhdanov, Yu. A. Carbon and life (Rostov-na-Donu, 1968).7. Metzler, D.E. Biochemistry. The Chemical Reactions of Living Cells (Academic Press, Inc, New York — London, 1977) (p.644, Fig. 11-3).8. Pauling, L., Pauling, P. Chemistry (W.H.Freeman and company, San Francisco, 1975).2003usednev@yandex.ru
 *Table 1 The connection of Periodic system of elements and compounds

1-2:ns1-2 3:ns2p 4:ns2p2®sp3 5  …ns2p3 6    …ns2p4 7    …ns2p5 Electron forms
(s-  elements  p-) -4:CH4(SiH4… -3: NH3    PH3 -2:H2O,H2S.. -1: HX :Types  0 :R
Metal compounds -3:        C2H6 -2:NH2NH2 -1:H2O2,H2S2-  0:  X2 +1:R2O
-3:B2H6 -2:CH3OH,C2H4 -1:NH2OH,PH3O 0:O2,O3,HOF,S8 +1: X2O — HXO +2:RO
-2 -1:C2H2,C2H4O2  0:  N2       P4 +1:O2F2,S2X2,H2S2O2 +2 +3:R2O3
  -1 0:C,CH2X2,H2CO +1:N2O H3PO2 +2 SX2,H2SO2,H2S2O3 +3:X2O3-HXO2 +4:RO2
0 B,А1 +1:        C2X2 +2:NO +3:       [H2S2O4] +4:XO2 +5:R2O5
  +1 +2:CO,H2CO2 3:HNO2,H3PO3 +4:SO2,H2SO3 +5:X2O5-HXO3 +6:RO3
  +2 +3:C2X6,(CO2H)2 +4 NO2 +5:         H2S2O6 +6: +7:R2O7
1Li2O,BeO B2O3,H3BO3 +4:CO2,H2CO3 5:N2O5HNO3H3PO4 +6:SO3,H2SO4 +7:X2O7-HXO4 +8:RO4

2.Other forms and applications of the periodic system of compoundsThe system described can be presented in other forms. The diminution of cells (2n+1 or 4n+1 at discontinuity in Cn) and the unconformity with traditional rows of homologues (since the addition of CH2-groups changes the oxidation degree) can be overcome with the help of pyramidal systems with equal sizes of cells. Asymmetrical or ‘transitional’ pyramidal form with the traditional rows of homologues determined by the order of their total oxidation degree, dehydrogenation or number of oxygen atoms in molecule2transformed into Table 3 if the oxidation degree relates to one atom of carbon.The difference in number of groups CH2, CHOH and CO (lines C–2, 0, +2) may be chosen as the basis in ‘transitional’, ‘simmetrical’ and ‘oxi’-forms correspondingly.The most natural ‘transitional’ form better reflects isoelectronic compounds (placed diagonally).The combination of the conservation of the rows of homologues with symmetrical reflection of oxidation degrees and covering the whole body of the table can be rendered by turning the symmetrical form 45 or 135 degrees. Homologues (CH2line) will be arranged in a row (as in the traditional form), lines of carbohydrates and acetate condensation (C0line) will be placed diagonally, and CO condensation will be situated in a column.Main transitions and reactions will follow the same lines.Discussion. Concepts of an oxidation degree and of a structure.This approach may be connected with the development of the used structural approach. The concept of a structure itself may be regarded as invariant in all its changes described by the system (with and without changes in the oxidation degree). It present lines of preserving and modifying of structures. The isostructural lines within the periods show similarity of properties and energy (see T.3-4) and save space and information in the table. The periodic system, on the other hand, appears to be the universal operator which can be applied to all the elements, rows, structures and their fragments (for example, all the transformations and characteristics of the elementary compounds C1-3inT.3-4 are transferred by a simple shift to aromatic from toluene as phenyl-metane up to phenyl alanine, aryl-, piridil-, indole-, and other derivatives).These structures can play the role of former ‘complex atoms’ and ‘radicals’ with different degrees of oxidation and combinations (by means of their repetition and modification with different symmetry, as condensates (CH2O)n, (CH2CO)n and isoprenoids C5n).It may become the main principle of both natural and created substances, the economy of genes and ferments, genome, proteome and cell organization (on the basis of inexplicable intrones and differentiation for recombination of their parts?).The oxidation degree not commonly used in organic chemistry. But it determines the energy, prognostic characteristics besides of common for periodic systems8, biochemistry and physiology of organisms (since it is connected with energy) which depends on the reduction and oxidation of organic compounds. Perhaps, it may be connected with the concept of nucleophilic and electrophilic reagents and reactions as well as with acid-base Lewis conception. There are some distinct regularities of oxidation9,4, condensation and hydration (ATP included)7. Transfer of energy of oxidation in row C1(CH4— CH3OH — CH2O — HCOOH — CO2) noted in T.3-4 to other rows make it possible to calculate other reaction and biochemical pathways with small error. The heat of combustion of organic compounds is determined by the level of their reduction (group) as a first approximation and increase in mean energy of C-O bond as a second approximation4(77 kcal in alcohols,82 inaldehydes,90 inasids and95 inCO2, according to6see green line C1 in tables 3-4). This increase account for energy and tendency of dismutations, isomerisations, carboxilations6and most of other organic reactions (since disproportionations noted by Gerhardt and others, see tables 27.XI-XV13). (The generalization of this law may be that the difference decrease from C-F7and C-O4,9bonds to 0 for C-N and <0 fo C-C). The combinations of these differences accounts for energy and tendency of most of reactions as well as possibility of all anaerobic and our life, because the difference of energy of oxidation to acid RCHO®RCOOH and reduction C-OH to C-H is about 100 kilojoule which is enough for the creation of ATP in glycolysis.9This fundamental distinction and relation between the number of electronsnand potential, reflected by groups of the system and this low (Eoin energyG=-nFEo, whereF— Faraday constant) correspondingly may be basis of transformations ofnandEo(as I and U) and forms of energy in nature. It create alternative to exist explanation of organic reactions and the step to a new electronic theory of natural changes. It supplemented by a conception of different unit as atoms. The MMO, former electronic theory may be incorrect without the same consideration of every possible parts of molecules such as RHn, CO2or one-carbon fragments and the whole empirical base.k, l, min combinations CkHl(RHn)mcan define period, group and saturation degree (m<2k+2-l, connected with structural and coordinative theory of neorganic chemistry) in 3d-system or additional dimensions of the common system. The opening of electron structure and bringing chemical elements, compounds and the greater parts to quantum numbers replaces the former paradigm of nonstructural elements and atoms of Lavoisie and Dalton (in isolation from their ‘complex atoms’ and ‘radicals’) and structural theory of their bonds which reigns in modern chemistry.The fundamental theoretical importance of the link to Mendeleev’s periodic system and the possibility of transferring quantum mechanical fundamentals of the latter to the system of compounds determine the development programme of theoretical natural sciences that has not been realized in the twentieth century. The revolutionary value of the atomic structure discovery and of bringing chemical elements to quantum numbers and the solution of Schredinger’s equation was underestimated. It replaces the former paradigm of nonstructural elements and atoms of Lavoisie and Dalton (in isolation from their ‘complex atoms’ and ‘radicals’) which reigns in modern chemistry. The new system may become the first step in this direction and empirical basis of “bioelectronic” Sent-Diergi and a new quantum theory as it defines common features of different elements and compounds in connection with the electronic theory and with the whole empirical base of natural changes and functions of organisms.

 

J.Mathieu, R.Panico Mecanismes reactionnels en chemie organique — Hermann, 1972.8. Malygin, A.G. Structural symmetry of the metabolic reaction network.J. Mol. Med.78, 2, 66-73 (2000).9. Mushkambarov, N. N. Analytical biochemistry, V.3 (Moscow, 1995).Valence by C.A.Coulson -Second edition Oxford University Press 1961Charlot G./ Wolf J.P., Lacroix S., Anal.Chim.Acta, 1947, 1, 73. — пока не развилиKossel W., Ann.Phys., 1916, 49, 229…1920Z.el

*Table 2. Periodic system of chemical elements and compounds

period Groups:       0 1ns1   d10s1 2ns2   d10s2 3ns2p1  d1s2 4ns2p2 d2s2 5ns2p3 d3s2 6ns2p4  d5s1 7ns2p5 d5s2 8ns2p6 d6s2 ns2d7 d8-10
PSelements period:2:Hе 3:Ne 4:Ar 5:Kr 6:Xе 7:Rn (1-H) Li Na K \CuRb\Ag Cs\Au Fr Be Mg Ca \ ZnSr\Cd Ba\Hg Ra B  Al      Sc/ GaY/ In La*/Tl Ac” C Si     Ti ./ GeZr/ Sn Hf/ Pb Rf N P     V / AsNb/Sb,Ta /Bi Db O S    Cr/ Se Mo/Te W/ Po Sg (1-H) F Cl Mn/ BrTc/ I Re/At Bh  Fe Ru,Os CoRh Ir NiPd Pt
typical compound R2On-RHkO4:n=8:RO47:I2O7-HIO46:XO3-H2XO45:R2O5—H3RO44:RO2—H4RO40:R1:R2O 2:RO 3:R2O3 RI7-kR2I2k-27:IF6:XF55:RI4 4:RI3-R2I61:R2:RI 3:RI2 RHkO3:  RO37:I2O5-HIO36:XO2-H2XO35:R2O3—H3RO34:RO—H4RO32:R       3:RI RI5-kR2I2k-6  3:R RHkO2-R2Hk-4O:RO2I2O3 — HIO2XI2 — H2XO2R2O- …..- H3RO24:R-RH2O- H4RO2 RH5-kR2H2k-6 5:Rn RHkO -R2Hk-4:RO7:I2O- HIO6:Xn5:RH2OH 4:RH3OH R2H2k-2😕7:I2 6:X2H25:R2H44:R2H6 RHk:8:R7:HI 6:H2X5:H3R  4:RH4
2 0:He|1:LiH, LiI,Li2O,Li3N2:BеH2,BеI2, BeO3:BI3,B2O3-H3BO3,BN4:CI4,CO2-H2CO3,5:N2O5-HNO3,NO2+6:   — Li-B2Cl4, B2(OH)4C2I6,(COOH)2, C2N2NO2<=>N2O4   6-8:-  BeBI,B2OCHI3CO-HCOOHHCNNI3,N2O3-HNO2   B      H4B2O2C2I2(+HI)п,CHO)2NO   HOBH2C,CH2I2,CH2O,AcHNHI2,N2O,HONNOHOF   B5H10 B6H12C2H2(HI)n CH3CHON2  (HN3-N3F)O2F2   NaBH4,B2H6CH3I,CH3OH,CH3NH2NH2F ,NH2OHO2,O3, HOF   C2H6N2H4,KN2H3H2O2 F2  HOF   CH4,CH3Li ,Al4C3NH3,KNH2,NH2ClH2O, KOH< K2OHF,KF                                                        (Ne)
3 Ne|NaI,NaOH,Na2O-2,Na+Mg2+,MgO | 3:Al+3,Al2O3SiO2nH2O:H2SiO3,SiF6-2РI5,P2O5— HPO3-H3PO4SF6,SO3-H2SO4,SO2I2Cl2O7— HClO4,FClO3 Na  Si2I6,Si2O3H4P2O5, P4O8S2F10 Na2S2O6  Mg    MgD3 | [AlI]- HSiOI,(SiI2)n,SiOPI3,P2O3-H3PO3SI4,SO2-H2SO3ClF5,Cl2O5-HClO3       Al   AlD3(SiCl)n,SiHI3P2I4— H4P2O4ZnS2O4(H2SnO6)ClO2  LiAl(C5H7N)4Si   SiH2I2(SiD3)HPF2, H3PO2, P4SnSCl2-CoSO2ClF3,Cl2O3— HClO2   SiH,CaSi2P4S2Cl2,S2O -R2S2O2   SiH3Cl,-O,-PH2,RH3PO  (PnH2)Sn HSBr-(Sn-8Cl2)ClF,Cl2O — HClO   Si2H6  — Si8H18P2H4  (P3H5)H2S2    H2SnCl2   SiH4 KSiH3,Ca2SiPH3,KPH2-Ca3P2H2S,S-2HCl, NaCl                                             (Ar)
4 Ar|KI,KOH,K2O,KO2-3CaO-CaCO3,CaC2,CaSnSc2O3— Na3Sc(OH)6TiI4,TiO2,H2TiO3,Ba-,ТiO4-4VF5,V2O5,HVO3+nH2O,VO4-3CrO3-H2CrO4,K2Cr2O7Mn2O7— HMnO4  [Fe+8]?  K  —ScI2, CsScI3TiI3,Ti2O3,TiNV+4,VCl4,VO2”,VO++,K3CrO4,   CrOCl3[MnO3] — H2MnO4   Ca— Ti++,TiI2, TiH2,kV+3,VCl3,V2O3,VO2CrCl4, CrO2Na3MnO4K2FeO4   Sc      ScD3 V++,VCl2, VOCrCl3,Cr2O3— CrO2-MnCl4,MnO2FeO4-3  Ti  TiD3  [VD3]+Cr2+CrCl2, CrO,CrSMnF3,Mn2O3FeIV,K3CoO4K2NiO4    LiTiD3V   V(CO)6(CrH),Mn+2,MnOFe+3K3Fe(OH)6CoO2   Li2TiD3   V(CO)6Cr     Cr(CO)6     Mn(CN)6-3Fe2+:Fe S2,NiO2 Cs2CuF6  Na2Cr2(CO)10Mn       Mn2(CO)10[Fe(NO)(H2O)5+2 Cu+3K3CuF6      V(CO)5-3    Na2Cr(CO)5        Mn(CO)5Fe— Fe(CO)5 CuOCu+2 V(CO)5-3Fe2(CO)82-CoCo2(CO)9 Cu+ Mn(NO)3COFe(CO)42-Co(CO)5NiNi(CO)4
      4* 2OZn++, ZnO,ZnH2Ga+3(H2O)6,Ga2O3GeCl4,GeO2,GeS2AsF5,As2O5,H3AsO4,AsO3-SeF6,SeO3-H2SeO4— HBrO4, BrF6+ Cu        Ni2(CO)62-Zn2++ Zn/ZnCl2Ga2I4,Ga2S2 SeOSeO4  Zn    Ga+,Ga2O,Ga2SGeI2,GeO,GeHCl3AsCl3,As2O3-H3AsO3SeCl4,SeO2-H2SeO3BrF5— HBrO3H2KrO4  Ga As2I4, AsnSn BrO2   Ge SeO,SeSO3BrF3,Br(NO3)3KrF4      NaGe, (GeH)nAsSe2Cl2— Se4Cl2,SeO   GeH3Cl,(GeH2)nAs2H2Se2-8BrCl,Br2O—HBrOKrF2   Ge2H6— Ge5H12As2H4?H2Se2-nBr2   GeH4,KGeH3,Ag4GAsH3,KAsH2H2SeHBr,  Br-(Kr)
5 (Kr)|         Rb2O — RbO3SrO — SrCO3 | Y+3, Y2O3ZrI4,ZrO2,ZrSi, Zr+4NbCl5,Nb2O5MoCl6,MoO3,H2MoO4Tc2O7,Tc2S7,TcO4RuO4 Rb ZrI3NbCl4,NbO2,NbS2MoCl5,Mo2O5TcI6,TcO3,TcOCl4RuO4  SrZrI2,ZrH2,ZrO ?Nb+3,NbCl3,NbNMoCl4,MoO2,MoS2TcCl5,KTcF6,TcO3RuF6,RuO3,K2RuO4    Y   YD3ZrCl ?NbCl2,NbOMoCl3,Mo(H2O)6+3TcCl4,TcO2,TcS2(RuF5)4,RuF6RhF6   Zr    ZrD3 NbC5H5(CO)4(Mo6Cl8)Cl4, MoAc2 RI4,RO2,RS2 RF5    Nbd4s1   Mo(C6H6)2+ RuCl3,R2ORhl4      Zr(CO)6  Nb(CO)6Mo    Mo(CO)6 Ru2+RO,RI2, PtCl6      Tc      Tc2(CO)10Ru2O,RhClRh(CN)4 AgF6-3AgAgO2      Nb(CO)5-3    Mo(CO)5     Tc(CO)5 Rud7s1Ru(CO)5 AgF2   Rhd8s1Rh4(CO)9   Ag+  Ru(CO)42-RhCO)4Pdd10s0
       5* AgI,Ag2SCd++  |   In+3,In2O3SnCl4,SnO2— H2SnO3-SbI5,Sb(OH)6-,Sb4O10TeF6,TeO3,TeO4,—H6TeO6IF7,I2O7— HIO4,H5IO6XeF8,XeO4,H4XeO6 AgCd2(AlCl4)2       InI2Sn2Cl6,Sn2Ac6SbCl4,SbOSbO4Te2F10, Te2O5— Na2IO4  Cd               InI, In2OSn++,SnO-Na2SnO2Sb+3,SbI3,Sb2O3,SbNTeI4,TeO2,H2TeO3IF5,I2O5— HIO3XeF6,XeO3-H2XeO4                        In — IOIO3,I(IO3)3    (InH)nSn TeCl2,TeO,TeSO3IF3,ICl3,IPO4,IAc3XeF4XeBr4    SbTe+    SnH3Cl — SnH3CH3TeICl,IBr,I2O-HIOXeF2XeBr2   Sn2H6 Te2-2I2XePtF6   4-4:SnH4,NaSnH35-3:SbH3,KSbH26-2:H2Te, HTe-,Te-27-1:HI, I8-0:(Xe)
6 (Xe)| CsOH,Cs2O — CsO3BaO,BaCO3BaSO4,BaH2Ln2O3(CeO2,Pr,NbTbO2TaCl5,Ta2(SO4)5,HfCWCl6,WO3,H2WO4*,WnRe2O7-HReO4,K2ReH9,kOsF8,OsO4,[OsO4(OH)2] Cs  [BaCl]SmEuYhNdTmGdDy2+Hf2X3| TaI4,TaO2,TaS2WCl5,W2O5ReCl6,ReO3OsF7  Ba    BaD4— HfCl2TaCl3,TaN,(TaH3)xWCl4,WO2,WS2ReCl5,Re2O5OsF6OsO3,PtO3, PtAs2   La*—   TaCl2,TaO(WCl3)6ReCl4,ReO2IrF6 AuF7 Hf  TaC6H5(CO)4WI2ReI3,Re2O3K2Re2Cl8RCl4RO2RS2         Ta ReCl2,ReO,ReSOsI3, O2PtF6XePtF6 AuF5     Ta(CO)6Wd4s2  W(CO)6Re+,K5Re(CN)6,ClOsOIrI3,IrI6-3H2Pt(OH)6         W2(CO)10-2Re       Re2(CO)10OsI Au2O3      Ta(CO)5-3     W(CO)5-2      Re(CO)6-1-3Os Os(CO)5IrCl PtF2,PtO    W(CO)5-3  Ird5s Au2S  W(CO)5-4Re(CO)6-3Os(CO)4-2Ptd9s1
     6* Au2OHgO,HgNH2Cl,Hg2NI-Tl+3,Tl2O3,TlBH4,TlH4-PbCl4,PbO2,Pb(SO4)2BiF5,Bi2O5,Bi(OH)6,BiO3PoF6,PoO3? Au,Hg2++,Hg2I2 PbPbO3— Pb2PbO4  [Au(NH3)n]-HgTl+, Tl2O,TlOHPb+2,PbI2,PbO,PbSBiCl3,Bi2O3,BiO+PoI4,PoO2,PoI6— AtO3    KHg, KHg2Tl   Pb   Bi+,Bi3+5PoCl2,PoO,PoSO3 Atiii+3   Bi    84Po209AtBr2RnF2      [85At210]   PbH4BiH3PoH2,Na2PoAtH        [Rn222]
7 (Rn)| Fr+Ra+2Ac+3Th+4U+6Np+7  (UF6,UO3)   HsO4 87Fr223U+5UCl5,U2O5 88Ra226      UO295Am 89Ac- An (   U+396Cm-103 90Th UO Np+3PuO2 104Rf 91Pa105Db 92U106Sg 93Np107Bh 94Pu108Hs 94Pu 108Hs

I — halogens, X- S,Se, Ac- CH3COO-, D — Dipy — dipiridil.    *Table 3. Periodic system of organic compounds and metabolism (digest)

Groups:0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Units:   HеNe Ar (H) Li Na K – Cu Be Mg Ca – Zn B  Al  Sc – Ga C Si Ti – Ge N P V – As O S Cr – Se (H) F Cl Mn — Br Fe Co Ni
Characteristic 8-0:Rcompounds 7-1:HR:HX(groups):6-2:H2R:H2S          5 -3:H3R:NH3 (RH) – R2O 0:X2-1:H2O2               H2Sn-2:N2H4 (RH2) – ROX2O – HXOO2, SnNH2OH (RH3) – R2O3––N2 RH4– RO2HXO2H2S2O3N2O H3R – R2O5  NO H2R – RO3HXO3    ?SO2– H2SO3NO2 HR – R2O7––NO2 RO4       ?(NaIO4) HXO4  H2SO4         NO3, H3PO4
4-4:  H4R:CH4      -3——270—-à -2CH3OH -1——250—à MetabolicaxeCH2O +1——190—-à CO, HCN +2HCOOH +3——115—à +4:CO2 H2CO3
C2:1+1 CH3CH3           C2H4          C2H5OH C2H2,      (CH2OH)2CH3CHO CH2OHCHOCH3COOH CHOCHOCH2OHCOOH  Gly                      +2 CHOCOOH  (COOH)2,(CN)2
C3:C3H8lines:1+21+1+1 C3H6, C3H7OHi:(CH3)2CHOH(CH3)3N C2H5CHO(CH3)2CO, (CH2)3YNH2(CH2)3NH2 C2H5COOHCH2=CHCHOCH2OHCHOHCH2OH CH3CHOHCOOHCH2OHCHOHCHOCO(CH2OH)2  Ala CH3COCOOH CH2OHCHOHCOOH

Ser,Cys,imidazole

CH2(COOH)2CHOCHOHCOOH->Cys-S-S- CHOH(COOH)2 (HCN)3:C1-3:triazin-, NH-imidazole, H2NCH(CN)2  CO(COOH)2

Cycle Crebs

C4:C4H10i:CH(CH3)3

C4H8-butenC3H7OH-n,i,t(CH3)4N+X C4H6-butadien(CH2)4Y,C4H10O2NH2C4H8NH2 C4H4-diacetilenC3H7COOHButyric asid C4H2,    erythrol[=Û-OH]NH2(CH2)3COOH(CH)4Y-furan,pyrrol (CH2O)4CH3COCH2COO— CHO(CH2)2COO-Tre CH3CH(COOH)2(CH2COOH)2Succinic-CoA(CH)4Y2:Pirimidin  fumaric   malat

[=]®[-OH]

Asp – Asn

(CHOHCOOH)2oxalaceticUracil,Cytosine ®( n-line )®i:CH(COOH)3(HCOOH)4-(HCN)4:barbituric (COCOOH)2HOC(COOH)3®oxi:(COH)4N2
C5H12-n,i-,i’:(CH3)3C C5H11OH C5H8— isopreneIPPPC4H8CHO cholinе,(CH2)5Y C5H6C4H9COOH-Valeric, pivalic asid C(CH2OH)4[=Û-OH]Val pentitol,dRidose   (CH)5N-piridinMet,Pro,Orn (CH2O)5Û(CH2)3(COOH)2-Glutaric ribonic,furoic asids

GluÛGln

TaconicOxoglutaric     (CH2OH)3(COOH)2 К2C5O5 Purine (HCN)5:C4®oroticC3– Adeninepurinone GuaninXanthine(ureous acid)
C6:C6H14 C6H12C6H13OH C6H10-homoisopren C5H11COO-caproic asid

caprolactam

Leu,Ile

mevalonatLis,picoline sorbitketone bodies C6H12O6<>(CH2CO)3 aldonic:gluconatenicotinic,Arg uronic,ascobicHis iso — citric citridic  

Pteridine
 dihydro-pterin  Pterin  Xanto-pterin
Oxidatedaromatic and heterocycliccompounds

Line6-cyclo:   cyclohexan

C6H11OH- cyclohexanol (CH2)5CO,quinitole

C6H6

C6H5X:PhOH, PhNH2 C6H4X2C6H4(OH)quinol C6H3X3quinone C6H2X4 C6HX5,Styphnates K6C6O6 C6X4O2:cloranil   C6O4X2 (CO)6,C6X12: C6X14
C7:C7H166+1 – line C7H14C7H13OH C7H12C7H11OH’ C6H11COO-heptylic asid  6+1:PhCH3toluine  PhCH2OHC6H5OHCH3cresols PimelicPhCHOC6H4OHCH2OHC6H3(OH)2CH3 benzoicPhCOOHC6H5OHCHO (CH2O)7shicimic quinicC6H4OHCOO- ara-heptanoatquineC6H4(OH)2COOH-gentizic,p-catehat homocitricC6H4(OH)3COO-gallic fumaril-piruvicquinolinicdimolinat C6(OH)5COOHdimetilxanthine theocin, theobromine
melanines
 FATTYACIDSPATH

C8:C8H186+26+1+1

C8H16octylaz C8H14octanal C8H12octilicC6+2:  PhC2H5C6H4(CH3)2xylenes   styrenePhCH=CH2Indocsilcollidins (CH)2(COOH)2PhCOCH3tiramin xylenol PhCH2COOtoluic,coumarone dofamin indole PhCHOHCOOHCH3C6H3OHCOOvanilin noradrenalin oxindole (CH2CO)4:orselinic homogentisic,PhCOCOO C6H4(COOH)2-phthalicIndolquinone allo-maleic-acetacetic  [(OH)2]  {(OH)3}  C6(OH)4(COOH)2
lignin

C9:C9H206+3

  C6H11C3H7pulegene   ASIDS ennoic  PATHPhC3H7Cumene (oxo-)PhC3H6OHC6H4(CH2)3indan StyrinePhCH=CHCH2OHC8H9CHOinden   PhC2H4COO-xylicscatole PhCHCHCOO-cynnamicPhCH2CHNH2COO-Fenadrenaline PhCH2COCOOHcoumaric Tir C6H3(OH)2CH=CHCOOH-caffeicDOFA,TirI C6H4(CO)3,dofaquinone,TirI2indoxylic C6H4(COOH)COCOOHdUdC C6H3(COOH)3HOC6H4(COOH)COCOOHUC [+CO2]Aminoimidazolecarboxi-amid-R-5-P                C6OH)3(COOH)3C9H11N5O3biopterin                              C9H13N5O4dihydroneopterin     erythro-pterin C9H7N5O5
isoprenoids
    E c h i n o c r o m e s          B          D       E
Degrese of oxidation

C10H22CnH2n+2alkanes

+O,CnH2n-2alkenes alcogols C10H18naphtaneCamphaneC10H20O citronelol Terpenes:camphene,camphol,citren C10H16OCamphor,campholicCitral, quinamine  CuminolPulegone C10H10®-1 C10H8NaphthalineCumic, camphanic NaphtholC10H12O3conferolTriptaminQuinaldine    evgenolSerotonin NaphthoquinoneFerulateHeteroauxin(IAA) Porfobilinogen quinaldic0 naphtazarinKunureinTCitokinin:i6Ade    zeatin    C10X8dAkinetin E   A     O, I+1  G    1.4    1.6    1.8  (CO)n+2 CnX2n+2(CO)n(COOH)22.2

X- electronegative groups (-Cl, -OH, -NH2), Y- groups like =NH, =O, =S, [-OH] – main changing fragments                                               Used paths of metabolism

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