Periodic system of Biology and the CONTENT — Theoretical

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Periodic system of Biology (Sednev, 2002) and the CONTENT — Theoretical test (multifunctional periodic table, tool for both students and serious researchers)

Общая биология 40% Ботаника 20% classification Зоология 20% Homo Человек 20%
Topics VII. Biosys-tematics (10 %) Авто- трофные (Plant) Photosynthesis. переход: гетеротрофные мало- подвижные (Animal) части
I. Cell Biology (25 %) Microbiology: Prokaryotic cell organization Morphology PRO- KARYOTA Anabaena Phototrophy chemotrophy Escherichia αβγε- VIRALES Bacteriophage Biotechnology: Fermentation Genetic manipulation of organisms 1. Structure and function of cells Chemical components Cell. metabolism Protein synthesis recombination,
Organelles Transport through membranes Mitosis and and meiosis EUKA- RYOTA CHLOROPHYTA Chlorella Chla- mydomonas Diatomea Navicula EUGLENOPHYTA Euglena «PROTOZOA» Trypanosoma Amoeba Plasmodium Vorticella Paramaecium V.Genetics and Evolution (15 %) Variation: mutation and modification Mendelianin heritance Multiple allelism, sex linkage
Structure and function of tissues and Много- клеточные Ulothrix Spirogyra RHODOPHYTA Chondrus PHAEOPHYT Ayceae Sargassum BRYOPHYTA: Hepaticopsida Marchantia Muscopsida Polytricum, Sphagnum LICHENES Parmelia, Cladonia ZYGOMYCOTA Mucor ASCOM.: Penicillium Sacharomyces BASIDIO: Agaricus PORIFERA: Euspongi CNIDARIA Hydrozoa Scyphozoa Aurelia Anthozoa Corallium PLATHE- LMINTHES Turbellaria Polycellis Trematoda Fasciola Cestoda Taenia NEMATHE-LMINTHES Ascaris, Trichinella Digestion and nutrition Respiration Excretion Growth and development Reproduction (ferns and mosses included)
II. Anatomy and Physiology (15 %) Сосу- дистые RHYNOPHYTA Rhynia LYCOPO- DIOPHYTA Lycopodium EQUI- SETOPHYTA Equisetum POLY- PODIOPHYTA Pteridium MOLLUSCA Gastropoda Helix Lamellibran- chiata Cephalopoda Sepia ANNELIDA Polychaeta Nereis Oligochaeta: Lumbricus Hirudinea ARTHROPODA Crustacea Tracheata Chilopoda Insecta *Chelicerata Araneus, Ixodes organs involved in Circulation Transport of water, minerals and assimilates transpiration and gas exchange Immunity.
III. Animal Physiology (15 %) seedplants seedplants: PINOPHYTA Cycas Ginkgo Pinus Liliopsida Liliaceae Lilium, Allium Orchidaceae Orchis PoaceaeZea, Triticum Arecaceae Cocos Araceae Monstera MAGNO- LIOPHYTA – psida-ceae Ranunculaceae. Rosaceae: R, Malus, Prunus Fabaceae Pisum Oleace Fagaceae Cactaceae Brassicacea Lamiaceae Solanacea Asteraceae ECHINO- DERMATA Stellaroidea Asterias Echinoidea Echinocardium CHORDATA: Urochordata Ascidia Cephalochordata Branchiostoma Vertebrata: Cyclostomata Petromyzon Chondroichthyes Scyliorhinus Pisces Chondrostei Acipenser Teleostei Clupea Amphibia Caudata Salamandra AnuraRana Reptilia Testudinat Crocodylia Squamata Aves * Mammalia Monotremata Carnivora Ursus Canis, Felis Regulation: Endocrine-system: pituitary gland, thyroid gland, islets Langerhans, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, ovaries and testes Nervous system: peripheral, central (spinal cord and brain), autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympa-thetic), reflexes, sense organs (eyes and ears)
VI. Ecology (15%) Ecosystems Succession Mechanism of evolution Natural selection Mutation Reproductive isolation Adaptation Fitness Hardy- Weinberg principle Bio- geochemical cycles   Carbon cycle Nitrogen cycle Food. relationships Food web Food chain Trophic level Producers, consumers and decomposers Pyramid of biomass Energy flowPyramid of energy IV.Ethology (5%) Behavioural systems Causesof behaviour Conflict behaviour Learned behaviour Population structure and dynamics Age and sex structure of human population Biosphere and man Population growth Birth rate, death rate   Exponential growth Pollution



The content in the theoretical tasks at IBO (rules)

The IBO theoretical examination should concentrate on biological concepts applied to the majority of organisms of the same group. It should not contain specific facts, exceptions or knowledge about local organisms that require special or local experiences.

The majority of questions should test students’ understanding, science process skills and application of their biological knowledge. The host country should definitely make every effort to deliver theoretical tasks requiring sound biological understanding, rather than being based upon high-end / cutting-edge knowledge. Questions testing only knowledge should be expelled.

The maximum obtainable points for correct answers of each particular question have to be stated in the examination papers.

Questions concerning Principles of Scientific Reasoning and Principles of Biological Methods should be included in the Theoretical test, which should cover the following 7 topics in the indicated proportions.

In the IBO tasks the names of organisms will be the national names  (no description) together with the scientific names (Latin) in brackets. Any description instead of name is prohibited. The organizers should construct the questions so that the name of the organism is not a key element for answering; otherwise they should use very well known organisms (general representatives of a group) mentioned in the list for biosystematics.


I       Cell biology :                                                                   (20 %)[1]

—       Proteins: amino acids, three letter symbol; structure of proteins;

.       chemical classification of proteins:
— simple proteins and conjugated proteins
.       functional classification of proteins:
— structural proteins and enzymes
—       Enzymes
.       Chemical structure: apoenzyme and coenzyme
.       Model for enzyme action: enzyme binds with substrate
.       Denaturation
.       Nomenclature
—       Nucleic Acids : DNA, RNA
—       Other important compounds
.       ADP and ATP
.       NAD+ and NADH
.       NADP+ and NADPH

  • Organelles

—        nucleus
—        nuclear envelope
—        (nucleohyaloplasm)
—        chromosomes
—        nucleoli
—        cytoplasma
—        cell membrane
—        hyaloplasm
—        mitochondria
—        endoplasmatic reticulum
—        ribosomes
—        Golgi apparatus
—        lysosomes
—        vacuole membrane
—        proplastides
—        plastides
.       chloroplasts
.       chromoplasts
.       leucoplasts (e.g. amyloplasts)

Plant cells are surrounded with a cell wall

  • Cell metabolism

—     Breakdown of carbohydrates
.         Anaerobic break down (anaerobic respiration) of glucose: glycolysis
.         Aerobic break down (aerobic respiration) of glucose:

citric acid cycle

oxidative phosphorylation

—     Dissimilation of fats and proteins
—     Assimilation
.    Photosynthesis
.    Light reaction
.    Dark reaction (Calvin cycle)

  • Protein synthesis

—     Transcription
—     Translation
—     Genetic code

  • Transport through membranes

—     Diffusion
—     Osmosis, plasmolysis
—     Active transport

  • Mitosis and meiosis

Cell cycle: interphase (replication) and mitosis (prophase — metaphase — anaphase — telophase)

—      Chromatids, equatorial plate, haploid and diploid, genome, somatic and generative cells, gamete,               crossingover
—      Meiosis I and meiosis II.

  • Prokaryotic cell organization
  • Morphology
  • Phototrophy and chemotrophy


  • Fermentation
  • Genetic manipulation of organisms

II     Plant anatomy and physiology                                                  (15 %)

(with emphasis on seed plants)

Structure and function of tissues and organs involved in:

  • Photosynthesis, transpiration and gas exchange

—      Leaf : structure; function stomata

  • Transport of water, minerals and assimilates

—      Root : structure (endodermis)
—      Stem : structure (vascular bundles)

  • Growth and development

—      Apical meristem and cambium
—      Germination

  • Reproduction (ferns and mosses included)

—     Asexual reproduction (clone forming)
—     Sexual reproduction
.      Structure of flowers
.      Pollination
.      Double fertilization
—      Alternation of generation in seed plants, ferns and mosses

III    Animal anatomy and physiology                                                (25 %)

(with emphasis on vertebrates and especially man)

Structure and function of organs and tissues involved in

  • Digestion and nutrition

—     Digestive tract (including liver, gall bladder and pancreas)
—     Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
—     Absorption
—      Food components (water, minerals, vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates and fats)

  • Respiration

—     Breathing mechanism
—     Gas exchange
—     Respiratory organs

  • Circulation

—      Blood : blood plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, blood platelets
—     Blood circulation : arteries, capillaries, veins, heart
—     Lymphatic system : tissue fluid, lymph

  • Excretion

—     Structure of the renal system
—     Urine production

  • Regulation (neural and hormonal)

—     Nervous system : peripheral nervous system, central nervous system (spinal cord and brain), autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic), reflexes, sense organs (eyes and ears)
—     Endocrine system : pituitary gland, thyroid gland, islets of Langerhans, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, ovaries and testes

  • Reproduction and development

—     Structure and function of male and female reproductive systems
—     Ovulation and menstrual cycle
—     Fertilization
—     Formation of ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
—     Embryonic membranes

  • Immunity

—     Antigens, antibodies

IV    Ethology                                                                                 (5 %)

¥  Methodology of Ethology
¥  Innate and Learned Behaviour
¥  Communication and Social Organization
¥  Foraging Behaviour
¥  Defensive Behaviour
¥  Mating systems and Parental care
¥  Biological rhythms
V     Genetics and Evolution                                                           (20 %)

¥  Variation : mutation and modification
¥  Mendelian inheritance
—     Monohybrid cross
—     Dihybrid cross
—     Polyhybrid cross
¥  Multiple allelism, recombination, sex linkage
¥  Hardy-Weinberg principle
¥  Mechanism of evolution
—     Mutation
—     Natural selection
—     Reproductive isolation
—     Adaptation
—     Fitness

VI    Ecology                                                                                                        (10 %)

¥  Individual Organisms
—       Unitary and modular organisms
¥  Population
—       Population structure
.       dispersion, age, size and sex structure
—       Population dynamics
.       birth rate, death rate
.       exponential and logistic growth, carrying capacity
—       Population regulation
.       metapopulation dynamics
¥  Biotic Communities
—       Species richness and diversity
—       Niche, competition exclusion principle
—       Interspecific Interactions
.       competition, predation, symbiosis
—       Community dynamics
.       succession
—       Terrestrial biomes
—       Aquatic biomes
¥  Ecosystems
—       Trophic structure
.       food webs
—       Trophic levels
.       producers, consumers, decomposers
—       Energy flow
—       Productivity
.       gross and net primary productivity
.       energy transfer efficiencies
—       Matter flux through ecosystems
—       Global biogeochemical cycles
¥  Biosphere and man
—       Human population growth
—       Pollution
.       threats to biodiversity
.       in situ conservation
.       ex situ conservation


VII  BIOSYSTEMATICS                                                              (5 %)

Structure and function, evolutionary and ecological relationships among typical organisms in the following groups. Knowledge of scientific terms will not be required for successful solution of the tasks. However, competitors should know what the named representatives of genera mentioned below look like.

Domain Archaea  Methanobacterium,



Domain Bacteria  Agrobacterium, Anabaena, Bacillus,

Escherichia, Rhizobium, Salmonella,


Domain Eukarya

Kingdom Protista

  1. Rhodophyta Chondrus
  2. Phaeophyta Sargassum
  3. Bacillariophyta Navicula
  4. Euglenophyta Euglena
  5. Chlorophyta Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra,

Chlorella, Ulothrix

  1. Rhizopoda Amoeba
  2. Zoomastigophora Trypanosoma
  3. Apicomplexa Plasmodium
  4. Ciliophora Paramecium

Kingdom Fungi

  1. Zygomycota Mucor
  2. Ascomycota Claviceps, Penicillium, Saccharomyces
  3. Basidiomycota Agaricus

Kingdom Plantae

  1. Bryophyta Polytrichum, Sphagnum
  2. Hepatophyta Marchantia
  3. Rhynophyta Rhynia
  4. Lycopodiophyta Lycopodium
  5. Equisetophyta Equisetum
  6. Polypodiophyta Pteridium
  7. Ginkgophyta Ginkgo
  8. Pinophyta Pinus
  9. Cycadophyta Cycas
  10. Magnoliophyta
  11. Magnoliopsida
  12. Magnoliaceae Magnolia
  13. Ranunculaceae Ranunculus, Pulsatilla
  14. Rosaceae Rosa, Malus, Prunus
  15. Fabaceae Pisum
  16. Oleaceae Syringa
  17. Fagaceae Quercus
  18. Cactaceae Opuntia
  19. Brassicaceae Brassica
  20. Lamiaceae Lamium
  21. Solanaceae Solanum
  22. Asteraceae Helianthus
  23. Liliopsida
  24. Liliaceae Lilium, Allium
  25. Orchidaceae Orchis
  26. Poaceae Zea, Triticum, Bambusa
  27. Arecaceae Cocos
  28. Araceae Monstera

Kingdom Animalia

  1. Porifera Euspongia
  2. Cnidaria
  3. Hydrozoa Hydra
  4. Scyphozoa Aurelia
  5. Anthozoa Corallium
  6. Platyhelminthes
  7. Turbellaria Polycellis
  8. Trematoda Fasciola
  9. Cestoda Taenia
  10. Nematoda Ascaris, Trichinella
  11. Mollusca
  12. Gastropoda Helix, Arion
  13. Bivalvia Ostrea, Mytilus
  14. Cephalopoda Sepia, Octopus
  15. Annelida
  16. Polychaeta Nereis
  17. Oligochaeta Lumbricus
  18. Hirudinea Hirudo
  19. Arthropoda
  20. Crustacea Astacus, Daphnia, Cyclops
  21. Chelicerata
  22. Arachnida Euscorpius, Araneus, Ixodes
  23. Myriapoda
  24. Chilopoda Scolopendra
  25. Diplopoda Julus
  26. Hexapoda
  27. Insecta
  28. Thysanura Lepisma
  29. Odonata Libellula
  30. Blattodea Blatta
  31. Phasmatodea Carausius
  32. Isoptera Kalothermes
  33. Orthoptera Gryllus, Locusta
  34. Phthiraptera Pediculus
  35. Hemiptera
  36. Homoptera Aphis, Cicada
  37. Heteroptera Gerris, Nepa, Cimex
  38. Coleoptera Calosoma, Leptinotarsa, Ips,Tenebrio,


  1. Diptera Anopheles, Drosophila, Musca
  2. Lepidoptera Papilio, Bombyx
  3. Hymenoptera Ichneumon, Apis, Formica
  4. Siphonaptera Pulex
  5. Echinodermata
  6. Asteriodia Asterias
  7. Echinoidea Echinus
  8. Holothuroidea Holothuria
  9. Chordata
  10. Urochordata Ascidia
  11. Cephalochordata Branchiostoma
  12. Vertebrata


  1. Agantha Petromyzon


  1. Gnathostomata
  2. Chondrichthyes Scyliorhinus, Carcharodon
  3. Osteichthyes
  4. Actinopterygii Acipenser, Clupea, Salmo, Carassius,


  1. Sarcopterygii Lepidosiren, Latimeria
  2. Amphibia
  3. Caudata Salamandra
  4. Anura Rana, Bufo
  5. Reptilia
  6. Testudinata Testudo
  7. Crocodylia Crocodylus
  8. Squamata Lacerta, Vipera
  9. Aves
  10. Struthioniformes Struthio
  11. Sphenisciformes Spheniscus
  12. Ciconiiformes Ciconia
  13. Anseriformes Anser
  14. Falconiformes Falco
  15. Galliformes Gallus
  16. Columbiformes Columba
  17. Strigiformes Strix
  18. Piciformes Dryocopus
  19. Passeriformes Parus, Passer
  20. Mammalia
  21. Monotremata Ornithorhynchus
  22. Marsupialia Macropus
  23. Insectivora Erinaceus, Talpa
  24. Chiroptera Myotis
  25. Rodentia Mus, Rattus
  26. Carnivora Ursus, Canis, Felis
  27. Proboscidea Elephas
  28. Perissodactyla Equus
  29. Artiodactyla Sus, Bos
  30. Cetacea Delphinus
  31. Primates Cebus, Macaca, Hylobates, Pan, Gorilla,

Pongo, Homo

“Virales”  Bacteriophage

“Lichenes” Parmelia, Cladonia


Derefter følger en oversigt over biosystematikken med angivelse af hvilke ordner, familier og slægter deltagerne forventes at kende til. Listen er i øjeblikket ved at blive opdateret og revideret.




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