Chemistry, Chemical components and metabolism — Bio-

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General Chemistry — textbook      Program (olimpiads):   Elements, determination of their place in the periodic system,   Balancing equations, empirical formulae, mole concept and Avogadro constant, stoichiometric calculations, density, calculations with different concentration units (see NL 1901- );

Periodic table and trends (electronegativity, atomic and ionic size, metallic character, reactivity);

Molecular structures. Bond types (covalent, ionic, metallic), intermolecular forces and relation to properties (electron pairs);

Inorganic chemistry:

Reactions of s-block elements with water, oxygen and halogens, their color in flame tests;

Stoichiometry, reactions and properties of binary non-metal hydrides;

Common reactions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides (CO, CO2, NO, NO2, N2O4, SO2, SO3);

Common oxidation states of p-block elements, stoichiometry of common halides and oxoacids (HNO2, HNO3, H2CO3, H3PO4, H3PO3, H2SO3, H2SO4, HOCl, HClO3, HClO4);

Reaction of halogens with water;

Common oxidation states of first row transition metals (Cr(III), Cr(VI), Mn(II), Mn(IV), Mn(VII), Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(I), Cu(II), Ag(I), Zn(II), Hg(I), and Hg(II) )  and the color of these ions;   Dissolution of these metals and Al, amphoteric hydroxides (Al(OH)3, Cr(OH)3, Zn(OH)2);

Permanganate, chromate, dichromate ions and their redox reactions;  Iodometry (reaction of thiosulfate and iodine);

Identification of Ag+, Ba2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Cl, CO32–, SO42– ;

Organic chemistry:

Common electrophiles and nucleophiles.  Electrophilic addition: addition to double and triple bonds, regioselectivity (Markovnikoff’s rule), stereochemistry. Electrophilic substitution: substitution on aromatic rings, influence of substituents on the reactivity and regioselectivity, electrophilic species;  Elimination: E1 and E2 reactions at sp3 carbon centers, stereochemistry, acid-base catalysis, common leaving groups; Nucleophilic substitution: SN1 and SN2 reactions at sp3 carbon centers, stereochemistry; Nucleophilic addition: addition to carbon-carbon and carbon-hetero atom double and triple bonds, addition-elimination reactions, acid-base catalysis;

Radical substitution: reaction of halogens and alkanes;

Oxidations and reductions: switching between the different oxidation levels of common functional groups (alkyne – alkene – alkane – alkyl halide, alcohol – aldehyde, ketone –  carboxylic acid derivatives, nitriles – carbonates)

Cyclohexane conformations;

Grignard reaction, Fehling and Tollens reaction;

Simple polymers and their preparation  (polystyrene, polyethylene, polyamides, polyesters);

Amino acids and their classification in groups, isoelectric point, peptide bond, peptides and proteins;

Carbohydrates: open chain and cyclic form of glucose and fructose;

Lipids: general formulae of triacyl glycerides, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids;

 Concepts and skills expected to be known by all participants:  Concepts (0-6)

0  Awareness of experimental errors, use of significant figures;

1  Maths skills commonly encountered at secondary school level, including solving quadratic equations, use of logarithms and exponentials, solving simultaneous equations with 2 unknowns, the meaning of sine and cosine, elementary geometry such as Pythagoras’ theorem, plotting graphs (more advanced mathematics skills such as differentiation and integration, if required must be included as one of the advanced topics)

2  Nucleons, isotopes, radioactive decay and nuclear reactions (alpha, beta, gamma);

Quantum numbers (n,l,m) and orbitals (s,p,d) in hydrogen-like atoms;  Hund’s rule, Pauli exclusion principle;

Electronic configuration of main group and the first row transition metal atoms and their ions;

3  Periodic table and trends (electronegativity, electron affinity, ionization energy, atomic and ionic size, melting points, metallic character, reactivity);

Bond types (covalent, ionic, metallic), intermolecular forces and relation to properties;

Molecular structures and simple VSEPR theory (up to 4 electron pairs);

Balancing equations, empirical formulae, mole concept and Avogadro constant, stoichiometric calculations, density, calculations with different concentration units;

4  Chemical equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle, equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations, pressures and mole fractions;

Arrhenius and Bronsted acid-base theory, pH, self ionization of water, equilibrium constants of acid-base reactions, pH of weak acid solutions, pH of very dilute solutions and simple buffer solutions, hydrolysis of salts;

Solubility constants and solubility;  Complexation reactions, definition of coordination number, complex formation constants;

Basics of electrochemistry: electromotive force, Nernst equation; electrolysis, Faraday’s laws;

Rate of chemical reactions, elementary reactions, factors affecting the reaction rate, rate law for homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions, rate constant, reaction order, reaction energy profile, activation energy, catalysis, influence of a catalyst on thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of a reaction;

Energy, heat and work, enthalpy and energy, heat capacity, Hess’ law, standard formation enthalpies, solution, solvation and bond enthalpies;

Definition and concept of entropy and Gibbs’ energy, second law of thermodynamics, direction of spontaneous change;

5  Ideal gas law, partial pressures; Basic principles of inorganic qualitative analysis for ions specified in factual knowledge, flame tests;  Lambert-Beer law;

Principles of direct and indirect titration (back titration);  Acidi- and alkalimetry, acidimetric titration curves, choice and color of indicators for acidimetry;  Redox titrations (permanganometric and iodometric);  Simple complexometric and precipitation titrations;

6  Simple organic nomenclature;

Structure-property relations (boiling point, acidity, basicity);  Organic structure-reactivity relations (polarity, electrophilicity, nucleophilicity, inductive effects, relative stability)

Hybridization and geometry at carbon centers;  Sigma and pi bonds, delocalization, aromaticity, mesomeric structures;

Isomerism (constitutional, configuration, conformation, tautomerism)  Stereochemistry (E-Z, cis-trans isomers, chirality, optical activity, Cahn-Ingold-Prelog system, Fisher projections);

Hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups, micelle formation;  Polymers and monomers, chain polymerizations, polyaddition and polycondensation;

7 Laboratory skills

Heating in the laboratory, heating under reflux;

Mass and volume measurement (with electronic balance, measuring cylinder, pipette and burette, volumetric flask);

Preparation and dilution of solutions and standard solutions;  Operation of a magnetic stirrer;

Carrying out of test tube reactions;

Qualitative testing for organic functional groups (using a given procedure);

Volumetric determination, titrations, use of a pipette bulb;

Measurement of pH (by pH paper or calibrated pH meter);

It is intended that a topic can be introduced and discussed in a lecture of 2-3 hours before a prepared audience.•        VSEPR theory in detail (with more than 4 ligands);•        Inorganic stereochemistry, isomerism in complexes;•        Solid state structures (metals, NaCl, CsCl) and Bragg’s law;•        Relation of equilibrium constants, electromotive force and standard Gibbs energy;•        Integrated rate law for first order reactions, half-life, Arrhenius equation, determination of activation energy;•        Analysis of complex reactions using steady-state and quasi-equilibrium approximations, mechanisms of catalytic reactions, determination of reaction order and activation energy for complex reactions; Collision theory

Simple phase diagrams and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, triple and critical points;        Stereoselective transformations (diastereoselective, enantioselective), optical purity•   Conformational analysis, use of Newman projections, anomeric effect•        Aromatic nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic substitution on polycyclic aromatic compounds and heterocycles 

•        Supramolecular chemistry•        Advanced polymers, rubbers, copolymers, thermosetting polymers. Polymerization types, stages and kinetics of polymerization;•        Amino acid side groups, reactions and separation of amino acids, protein sequencing;•        Secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins, non-covalent interactions, stability and denaturation, protein purification by precipitation, chromatography and electrophoresis;

•        Enzymes and classification according to reaction types, active sites, coenzymes and cofactors, mechanism of catalysis;

•        Monosaccharides, equilibrium between linear and cyclic forms, pyranoses and furanoses, Haworth projection and conformational formulae;•        Chemistry of carbohydrates, oligo- and polysaccharides, glycosides, determination of structure;

•        Bases, nucleotides and nucleosides with formulae, Functional nucleotides, DNA and RNA, hydrogen bonding between bases, replication, transcription and translation, DNA based applications;

•        Complex solubility calculations (with hydrolyzing anions, complex formation);

•        Simple Schrödinger equations and spectroscopic calculations;•        Simple MO theory;

•        Basics of mass spectrometry (molecular ions, isotope distributions);•        Interpretation of simple NMR spectra (chemical shift, multiplicity, integrals);

•        Synthesis techniques: filtrations, drying of precipitates, thin layer chromatography.•        Synthesis in microscale equipment;

•        Advanced inorganic qualitative analysis;•        Gravimetric analysis;•        Use of a spectrophotometer;•        Theory and practice of extraction with immiscible solvents;•        Column chromatography;

respiration — break  down  of glucose: glycolysis

Nobel — from 1901 — vant Hoff to Mol.Biol.and Genesis — DNA —  репараций 2015 how  Nobel nominated — Search in the archive— 1901-1964 — Explore the map)* 1897 Sir Joseph John Thomson1906)  Ernest Rutherford1908 (Niels Bohr 1922) Jacobus Henricus vant HoffSvante Arrhenius, Wilhelm Ostwald), (Eduard Buchner)

 

Introduction to the General Chemistry :

учеб.-метод. пособие / В. В. Хрусталёв, Е. В. Барковский, Т. А. Хрусталёва. : БГМУ,
Предназначено для иностранных студентов подготовительного отделения. 2014

Мы добавляем, например, понятия  химии как области между физикой и биологией, с биологическими явлениями и свойствами (как вкус и запах веществ — субъективные, определения солей и кислот, характеристик дыхания и др. Общим явлением и уравнением химии  можно считать уравнение дыхания-окисления и фотосинтеза углеводов Лавуазье (№1: угле-воды + кисло-род = угле-кислота + вода + энергия), включающее и сохраняющие части как «радикалы». Лабораторной №1 можно сделать определение времени задержки дыхания — без кислорода и анализ различий и их причин в группе, от физических до био- и психо-логических. В физической части от закона кратных и атомных масс Дальтона следует переход как к А=№+Н, эквивалентам Э=А/в и валентности (в), и к Периодической системе их Менделеева.

PREFACE It is necessary for foreign students who are going to pass the Chemistry exam into  the Belorussian State Medical Universityin English.  compromise between translation of
chemistry text-books from Russian to English and  Belorussian traditions with the best international  Chemistry teaching (f.e.  as the science of substances: their structure, their properties, and the reactions that change them into other substances — ted by Linus Pauling.[15]  or Raymond Chang (1998 — the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.[16] ). LESSON 1  1.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

APPENDIX  A  A 1: SAFETY RULES FOR STUDENTS IN THE LABORATORY

All students of chemistry must recognize that hazardous materials cannot be completely avoided. Chemists must learn to handle all materials in an appropriate fashion. … eating, drinking or smoking in the laboratory or tasting a chemical is strictly forbidden.

Rules regarding personal protection

1.        Eye protection must be worn in the laboratories at all times. If the student wears contact lenses, full protection goggles must also be worn. 2.        A laboratory coat is required. 

3. All potentially dangerous materials will be labeled using the GHS symbols. Each student is responsible for recognizing these symbols and knowing their meaning.     All bottles (containers) containing hazardous substances must be appropriately labeled using internationally recognized symbols (see Appendix B).

APPENDIX B  HAZARD WARNING SYMBOLS AND HAZARD DESIGNATIONS

Chemicals used in the IChO laboratory experiments need to be labeled according to the Globally Harmonized System of Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) standard developed by the United Nations. The organizing country should use the locally legislated GHS system (pictograms, hazard statements, etc.)  www.unece.org/trans/danger/publi/ghs/ghs_welcome_e.html 

IChO [official site] The International Chemistry Olympiad (since 1968; not held in 1971) 4 -You can also benefit from the collection of olympiad problems at the IIS. The competition tasks from the past Olympiads (1968 – 2013) VOLUME 1,   VOLUME 2,     and   VOLUME 3. 41st – 45thIChO, 2009 – 2013, THE 45  INTERNATIONAL CHEMISTRY OLYMPIAD, Moscow, 2013  Edited by Anton Sirota,
IChO International Information Centre, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2014
PROBLEM 5 Simple estimates of graphene properties
Graphene is a two-dimensional, one atom thick carbon material (Fig. 1 a). Many
layers of graphene stack together to form graphite (Spheres are carbon atoms. They are 

arranged in hexagons 5.16 ·10–20m2. (b) Crystal lattice of graphite.  

Such atomic structure was long considered to be unstable. However, in 2004 Andrey
Geim and Konstantin Novoselov have reported production of the first samples of this
unusual material. This groundbreaking invention wasawarded by Nobel prize in 2010.
Experimental studies of graphene are still restricted. Production of massive portions
of the new substance still is a challenging synthetic problem. Many properties of graphene
were estimated. Usually, there is not enough information for rigorous calculations, so we
have to make assumptions and neglect unimportant factors. In this problem, you will
estimate the adsorption properties of graphene.
5.1 Estimate the specific surface of graphene open for adsorption in units m
Consider that graphene plane is separated from any other solid or liquid substance.
The single layer of nitrogen molecules adsorbed onthe outer surface of graphite is
shown in Fig. 2. Assume that the same arrangement of nitrogen molecules is formed on a
graphene surface.
5.2 How many gramsof nitrogen can be adsorbed on 1 gram of graphene assuming that
the graphene layer is placed onto the surface of a solid support? Estimate the
volume occupied by these nitrogen molecules after the complete desorption from
1 g of graphene (pressure 1 bar, temperature 298 K).
Let us consider adsorption as a common chemical equilibrium
gas ads(Agasare molecules A in the gaseous state, Aads are the same molecules on the surface)
with the equilibrium constant K:
(Such an assumption holds if a small number of molecules is adsorbed on the surface.)
Adsorption properties of graphene can be estimated from the data for adsorption on
a regular three-dimensional graphite. The enthalpy of adsorption (∆Ho of reaction (1)) of
any molecule A on graphene is on average by 10 % less negative compared to that on
graphite. On graphite, the adsorbed molecule is bound more strongly due to the interaction
with the lower graphene layers in the lattice (Fig.1b) and hence the enthalpy of adsorption
is more negative. The standard entropies of adsorption on graphene and graphite are
assumed to be the same.
5.3 How many moles, n, of CCl4 are adsorbed on 1 g of graphene at p(C
Assume that graphene is placed onto the surface of a solid support and the
interaction of CCl4 with the support does not change the enthalpy of adsortion of
CCl4on graphene.The temperature in both cases is 293 K. ∆Ho of adsorption of CCl4
on graphite is –35.1 kJ/mol.
The graphene films are expected to be sensitive gasdetectors. If 109 particles of a
gas are adsorbed on 1 cm2of a graphene surface this is enough to measure anelectrical
resistivity change of the graphene layer and to detect the presence of a gas in the
environment.
5.4 Determine the minimal content of ethane, С2Н6, in the air (in mol. %) at atmospheric
pressure (T = 293 K) at which a graphene sensor will detect this gas. The known
data for the adsorption of alkanes on graphite are shown in Fig 3.

you read books on other disciplines. Here are some excellent books on chemistry in general:

All Nobel Prizes and Chemistry Laureates  Facts and figures on the Chemistry Prize

IBO [official site] The International Biology Olympiad (since 1990)

IMO [official site]  The International Mathematical Olympiad (since 1959; not held in 1980) 6 IOI [official site] The International Olympiad in Informatics (since 1989).
IPhO [official site] The International Physics Olympiad (since 1967; not held in 1973, 1978, 1980)5 Of related interest: IAO [official site] The International Astronomy Olympiad (since 1996)
IGEO [official site] The International Geography Olympiad (every other year since 1996) is organised by the International Geographical Union (IGU) Olympiad Task Force.
ILO  The International Linguistic Olympiad (since 2003)
IPO [ Alternative site ] International Philosophy Olympiad (since 1993)

IJSO оfficial

Theoretical part of the IO
The IO theoretical examination should concentrate on logical concepts applied to
the majority of organisms of the same group. It should not contain specific facts,
exceptions or knowledge about local organisms that require special or local
experiences.
The majority of questions should test competitors’ understanding, science process
skills and application of their logical knowledge. The host country should definitely
make every effort to deliver theoretical tasks requiring sound logical understanding,
rather than being based upon high-end / cutting-edge knowledge. Questions testing
only knowledge should be expelled.
The maximum obtainable points for correct answers of each particular question have to
be stated in the examination papers. Questions concerning Principles of Scientific
Reasoning and Principles of logical Methods should be included in the Theoretical
test, which should cover the following  topics in the indicated proportions.
In the IO tasks the names of organisms will be the national names (no description)
together with the scientific names (Latin) in brackets. Any description instead of name
is prohibited. The organizers should construct the questions so that the name of the
organism is not a key element for answering; otherwise they should use very wellknown organisms (general representatives of a group) mentioned in the list for
biosystematics.

Full IBO  Regulations  Guide  I  Cell biology :   (20 %) [1] Structure and function  of  cells

Prokaryotic cell organization  Morphology  Phototrophy   and   chemotrophy

Chemical components

—    Monosaccharides;   disaccharides; polysaccharides — Lipids — Proteins: amino acids, three letter symbol; structure of proteins;  chemical classification of proteins:

— simple proteins and conjugated proteins

.       functional classification of proteins: —  structural proteins  and  enzymes-       Enzymes   Chemical structure:  apoenzyme and coenzyme.  Model  for enzyme action: enzyme binds with  substrate.

Denaturation .       Nomenclature

—       Nucleic Acids : DNA, RNA

-Other important compounds  ADP and ATP,  NAD+  and  NADH, NADP+ and NADPH

 

Cell metabolism

—     Breakdown of carbohydrates  Anaerobic and Aerobic break down (anaerobic and aerobic  respiration) of glucose: glycolysis.

citric acid cycle  oxidative phosphorylation

—     Dissimilation of fats and proteins

—     Assimilation.    Photosynthesis.    Light reaction.    Dark reaction  (Calvin cycle)

Transport through membranes —     Diffusion —     Osmosis,  plasmolysis  —    Active transport

Organelles-        nucleus —    nuclear  envelope —  (nucleohyaloplasm)-      chromosomes —  nucleoli

—        cytoplasma-        cell membrane-        hyaloplasm-        mitochondria-        endoplasmatic reticulum-        ribosomes-     Golgi apparatus-        lysosomes-        vacuole membrane-        proplastides-        plastides

.       chloroplasts.       chromoplasts.   leucoplasts  (e.g. amyloplasts)  Plant cells are surrounded with a cell wall

 

Mitosis and meiosis

Cell cycle: replication  and mitosis (phases), haploid and diploid, genome,  somatic and generative cells,

Protein synthesis  —  Transcription — Translation-     Genetic code

Microbiology

Biotechnology   Fermentation  Genetic manipulation of  organisms

 

V     Genetics and Evolution   (20 %)

Variation : mutation and modification

Mendelian inheritance

—     Mono-   Di- Poly-hybrid cross, recombination,

 

Appendix II: basic skills for Practical part International  Olympiad

 

III    Animal anatomy and physiology                                                (25 %) (with emphasis on vertebrates and especially man)  Structure and function of organs and tissues involved in

Reproduction and development

—     Formation of ecto- meso- endoderm

—     Embryonic membranes

Immunity

—     Antigens, antibodies

 

Circulation

—      Blood : blood plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, blood platelets

Digestion and nutrition

—     Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

—     Absorption

—      Food components (water, minerals, vitamins, proteins, carbohydrates and fats)

Respiration

—     Breathing mechanism

—     Gas exchange

—     Respiratory organs

Excretion-     Structure of the renal system-     Urine production

 

Regulation (neural and hormonal)

—     Endocrine system : pituitary gland, thyroid gland, islets of Langerhans, adrenal medulla, adrenal cortex, ovaries and testes

 

 

APPENDIX II
Basic Skills for the Practical Part of the IO
The IO practical examination should concentrate on the evaluation of competitors for
their ability to solve given logical problems using the following skills.
In the IO tasks the names of organisms will be the national names (no description)
together with the scientific names (Latin) in brackets. Any description instead of name
is prohibited. The organizers should construct the questions so that the name of the
organism is not a key element for answering; otherwise they should use very wellknown organisms (general representatives of a group) mentioned in the list for
biosystematics.
I Science Process skills
1 Observation  2 Measurement  and Calculation, Representing numerical results with appropriate accuracy (correct number of digits)
3 Grouping or classification, Relationship finding, Data organization and presentation: graphs, tables, charts, diagrams, photographs
4  Operational definition: scope, condition, assumption
Variable identification and control
Experimentation: experimental design, experimenting, result/data recording,
result interpretation and drawing conclusions.
5 Prediction / projection, Hypothesis formulation

Competitors in the IO should know the following methods and be able to use them. If
any method requires extra specific information concerning procedures that depend on
special technical equipment, instruction will have to be provided.

II  Physical and chemical methods
1  Titration 2 Measuring quantities by drip and strip methods
3 Dilution methods, Pipetting, including use of micropipettes
4 Determination of absorption of light
5 Separation techniques: chromatography, filtration, centrifugation  Gel electrophoresis
6 Standard tests for monosaccharides, polysaccharides, lipids, protein (Fehling, I2
in KI(aq), biuret)
7 Microscopy, including use of counting chambers

III
Basic biological skills
1 Observation ofl objects using magnifying glasses
2 Work with a microscope (objective max. 45 x) and stereomicroscope
4 Drawing of preparations (from a microscope, etc.)
5 Exact description of a biological drawing using tables of biological terms marked
with a numerical code
Biological methods
A Cytological methods  B Methods to study plant anatomy and physiology
1 Dissection of plant parts (roots, stems, leaves, fruits, flower) and deduction of flower formula
2 Free — hand sectioning of stems, leaves, roots
4 Staining (for example lignin) and slide preparation of plant tissues
5 Elementary measurement of photosynthesis
6 Measurement of transpiration
C Methods to study animal anatomy and physiology
1 Dissection of invertebrates.
Dissection of fish or parts or organs from vertebrates bred for the consumption is
allowed, too.
Animals being used, as dissection material should be dead before being
submitted to the competitors.
2 Whole — mount slide preparation of small invertebrates
3 Elementary measurement of respiration
D Ethological methods
1 Determination and interpretation of animal behaviour
E Ecological and environmental methods
1 Estimation of population density
2 Estimation of biomass
3 Elementary estimation of water quality
4 Elementary estimation of air quality
F Taxonomic methods
1 Use of dichotomous keys Identification of phyla and classes of other organisms

V Microbiological methods
1 Preparing nutrient media
2 Aseptic techniques (flaming and heating glass material)
3 Inoculation techniques

VI Statistical methods
1 Probability and probability distributions
2 Application of mean, median, percentage, variance, standard deviation, standard
error, T test, chi-square test
VII Handling equipment
Due to differences in the equipment between IO member countries, these skills can
only be evaluated if the competitors have been informed beforehand about the
algorithm, how to use the equipment, how to proceed with a particular experiment…

APPENDIX III
Reference template for on-line National  Olympiad
description (1a-see www.ibo-info.org)

arxiv:1507.03989 Software Use in Astronomy: an Informal Survey  arxiv:1411.2031 (Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements published in ADASS XXIV Proceedings — ASCL.

 

arxiv:1510.04660 Extragalactic HI Surveys)
Authors: Riccardo Giovanelli, Martha P. Haynes arxiv:1508.00698 An evolutionary missing link? A modest-mass early-type galaxy hosting an over-sized nuclear black hole)
arxiv:1503.02584 Eight New Milky Way Companions Discovered in First-Year Dark Energy Survey Data)
Authors: The DES Collaboration arxiv:1503.02320 -y- Reticulum 2.  От других карликов ничего не видят.arxiv:1412.2748 Local Group galaxies emerge from the dark)
Authors: Till Sawala et al.arxiv:1410.3482 The numerical frontier of the high-redshift Universe Thomas H. Greif arxiv:1410.6937 Yakov Zeldovich and the Cosmic Web Paradigm)
Authors: Jaan Einasto
Comments: Invited review paper, IAU Symposium 308 «The Zeldovich Universe: Genesis and Growth of the Cosmic Web’, 11 pages, 5 figures

arxiv:1409.2887 The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation 11 September 2014 issue of Nature

arxiv:1403.0007 Cosmic Star Formation History Piero Madau, Mark Dickinson — for Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ARAA), vol 52 —  с 1.9 темп экспоненциально падает с масштабом 3.9 млрд лет. Металличность 0.001 напирается уже за первый миллиард лет (красное смещение 6). z=1.5-6 галактики с темпом до 6000 масс Солнца в год (это примерно в 2000 раз выше, чем у нас сейчас), min 2000 масс Солнца в год.

arxiv:1401.1814 The Astronomical Reach of Fundamental Physics)
Authors: Adam Burrows, Jeremiah P. Ostriker (PNAS) массы звезд, планет и их размеры через фундаментальные постоянные и пару-тройку значений массы элементарных частиц. сюда и сюда

 

arxiv:1405.3752 Giant Planets Tristan Guillot, Daniel Gautier Treatise on Geophysics. — с  экзопланетами.

arxiv:1505.06869 Exoplanet Detection Techniques) Authors: Debra A. Fischer et al. 2014

arxiv:1210.0840 ADS Labs — Supporting Information Discovery in Science Education)

Authors: Edwin A. Henneken, Donna Thompson

arxiv:1206.6923 The Millennium Run Observatory: First Light
Authors: R. Overzier et al. Comments: 27 pages, Submitted to MNRAS  в Интернете.

arxiv:1104.5513 Galaxy Zoo: Morphological Classification and Citizen Science
Authors: Lucy Fortson et al. published in Advances in Machine Learning and Data Mining for Astronomy . Zooiniverse.

олимпиады —  национальные (лингвистическая олимпиада допускает команды от городов и несколько команд на страну, естественно-научная — школьникам среднего возраста. 12 международных научных олимпиад:

International Science Olympiads (англ.)  Международные олимпиады школьников | World Best …

worldbeststudents.org/ru/

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Ranking For 8th IJSO 2011 1. Chinese Taipei 6 18 2. Thailand 3 3 15 3. Russian Federation 3 3 15 4.